Industrial filters are extensively used for effectively removing a plethora of contaminants from the air. It comprises a robust frame, a filter element that handles most of the process, and efficient sealing to avoid leakages. While the basic processes are the same, there can be quite a bit of differentiation between various air filters in terms of mechanism. 3 such fundamental varieties will be discussed down below.
3 types of air filtration methods
In mechanical filtration, the air filter typically removes the particles through strictly physical processes such as straining, interception and diffusion. In straining, particles that are larger than the filter material are trapped due to the difference in size. As for interception, the contaminants latch onto the filter medium due to the Van Der Waal forces that are intermolecular in nature. Finally, in the case of diffusion, even the smallest of particles get trapped in the filter material due to their erratic movement that is facilitated by the air stream.
In this method, the filter carries an electrostatic charge that helps in attracting and holding on to the contaminants. The filter medium is typically made of fibers, and contains materials such as polyurethane or polypropylene. Extremely efficient in operation, they can filter more than 90 percent of contaminants in the air stream.
This type of filtration system comprises electrodes in the filter medium, and when external particles come into contact with them, a voltaic arc is created. Thereby, these particles take on a positive charge and are consequently attracted to other negatively charged electrodes, eventually being removed from the air stream. As is evident from the elaborate mechanism, electronic filters are rather expensive and difficult to maintain, thus, they are mostly used for very specific purposes.
Of course, apart from the mechanism, the size of the particles and the type of filter element also play a crucial role in selecting the best air filter.
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